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White Cloud 1885-1995 Red Cloud 1919 -2020

Wabokieshiek (translated White Cloud, The Light or White Sky Light in English, though Waapakiishik in the Sauk language means “White Sky”[citation needed]) (c. 1794 – c. 1841) was an important Native American of the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) and Sauk tribes in 19th century Illinois, playing a key role in the Black Hawk War of 1832. Known as a medicine man and prophet, he is sometimes called the Winnebago Prophet.

Wabokieshiek was born as Poweshiek to a Sauk father and a Ho-Chunk mother in the vicinity of Prophetstown, Illinois, which is named after him. Like his father, he was considered a Sac chief, and was also very influential among the Ho-Chunk, and he was known for his promotion of a traditional way of life among the local tribes. However, his influence waned after he promised/prophesied to Sauk/Fox chief Black Hawk that the British and other tribes (such as the Ho-Chunk and Potawatomi) would aid him against the United States in what became the Black Hawk War, a prediction that proved false. At the end of the war, on August 27, 1832, Wabokieshiek was taken prisoner along with the remnant of Black Hawk’s band. The prisoners were sent to Washington D.C. (meeting with Andrew Jackson) and then to Fort Monroe, Virginia in April, 1833. On June 5, 1833, they were sent back West to be released; Wabokieshiek and his son were released at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. After this time, he lived quietly until he died circa 1841.

Wabokieshiek is sometimes confused with Red Cloud, a Lakota chief, and Mahaska, an Ioway also called White Cloud.

War of 1812

Clockwise from top: damage to the U.S. Capitol after the Burning of Washington; the mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights; USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere; The death of Tecumseh in 1813 ends the Indian armed struggle in the American Midwest; Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans.
Date June 18, 1812 – February 18, 1815
(2 years and 8 months)
Location Eastern and Central North America, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

Treaty of Ghent; Status quo ante bellum with no boundary changes

Military stalemate
United States invasions of British Canada repulsed
Defeat of Tecumseh’s Confederacy
British invasions of the
United States repulsed
Anglo-Spanish troops forced out of Pensacola, Spanish Florida
Majority of the Great Lakes falls under American control


United States

Native Americans


United Kingdom British Empire

United Kingdom United Kingdom
United Kingdom The Canadas




Tecumseh’s Confederacy (until 1813)

Creek Red Sticks
Delaware (Lenape)

Spain Spain (1813)

Spain Florida

Commanders and leaders

United States James Madison
United States Henry Dearborn
United States Jacob Brown
United States Winfield Scott
United States Andrew Jackson
United States William Henry Harrison
United States William H. Winder (POW)
United States William Hull (POW)
United States Zebulon Pike †

United Kingdom Lord Liverpool
United Kingdom Sir George Prévost
United Kingdom Sir Isaac Brock †
United Kingdom Gordon Drummond
United Kingdom Charles de Salaberry
United Kingdom Roger Hale Sheaffe
United Kingdom Robert Ross †
United Kingdom Edward Pakenham †
Tecumseh †


United States United States
U.S. Army:
7,000 (at war’s start)
35,800 (at war’s end)
Rangers: 3,049
Militia: 458,463*
U.S. Marines
U.S. Navy and Revenue Cutter Service (at war’s start):
Frigates: 6
Other vessels: 14
Native allies:
125 Choctaw
unknown others

United Kingdom British Empire
British Army:
5,200 (at war’s start)
48,160 (at war’s end)
Provincial regulars: 10,000
Militia: 4,000
Royal Marines
Royal Navy
Ships of the line: 11
Frigates: 34
Other vessels: 52
Provincial Marine (at war’s start): ‡
Ships: 9
Native allies: 10,000

Casualties and losses

2,200 killed in action

4,505 wounded
15,000 (est.) died from all causes[a]

1,160 killed in action[4]

3,679 wounded
3,321 died from disease

* Some militias operated in only their own regions.
† Killed in action
‡ A locally raised coastal protection and seminaval force on the Great Lakes.

Naval campaigns of the War of 1812

The War of 1812 was a military conflict that lasted from June 1812 to February 1815, fought between the United States of America and the United Kingdom, its North American colonies, and its Native American allies. Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but the British often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. By the war’s end in early 1815, the key issues had been resolved and peace returned with no boundary changes.

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